Clinical characteristics of vaginal discharge in bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Nugent’s criteria

Hapsari ED, Hayashi M, Matsuo H.
Department of Maternity Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To determine which clinical signs have an important contribution in bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed by Nugent’s criteria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 58 women undergoing vaginal examination at Hayashi women’s clinic, Hyogo Prefecture. Characteristics of vaginal discharge (color, amount, odor, and pH level) and the number of clue cells were compared among normal, intermediate, and BV groups. BV was diagnosed by using Nugent’s criteria. RESULTS: The incidence of BV in our study population was 25.9%. Compared to the non-BV group, women in the BV group were found more often to have yellowish color and a moderate amount of discharge (66.67% vs 33.33%, NS; 55.56% vs 44.44%, NS), odorous discharge (100% vs 0%, p < 0.05) and furthermore, pH level and the number of clue cells were significantly higher. CONCLUSION: Odor, pH level and the number of clue cells in the vaginal discharge were helpful clinical signs for early detection of BV diagnosed by Nugent's criteria. Contact author: email:, Department of Maternity Nursing, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142, Japan

Change in contraceptive methods following the Yogyakarta earthquake and its association with the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy

Authors: Elsi Dwi Hapsari et all.
This study was conducted to examine access to contraception and change in contraceptive methods before and after the disaster in Bantul area, and to evaluate the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy.
Study Design
In total, 450 married women participated. Questionnaires, which included participants’ background, contraceptive methods, difficulties in accessing contraceptive method, and unplanned pregnancy, were completed.
Within 1 year of the disaster, the percentage of participants who used injections and implants tended to decrease, while the percentage of participants who used pills tended to increase. Use of coitus interruptus significantly increased after the disaster. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was significantly higher in a group of participants who had difficulty accessing contraceptive methods compared to a group that did not.
Health personnel should not only actively deliver contraceptive methods in a disaster situation but also educate couples to prevent unplanned pregnancy.
Keywords: Contraception; Disaster; Unplanned pregnancy; Contraceptive failure rates
Contact author: email:, Department of Maternity Nursing, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142, Japan

The Beginning of Change

In the 17th century, social reform was inevitable. Several nursing groups were organized. These groups gave money, time, and service to the sick and the poor, visiting them in their homes and ministering to their needs. Such groups included the Order of the Visitation of Mary, St. Vincent de Paul, and in 1633, the Sisters of Charity. The last group became an outstanding secular nursing order. They developed an educational program for the intelligent young women they recruited that included experience in a hospital as well as visits to the home. Receiving help, counsel, and encouragement from St. Vincent de Paul, the Sisters of Charity expanded their services to include caring for abandoned children. In 1640, St. Vincent established the Hospital for Foundlings in Paris. Later, in 1809, the Sisters of Charity established a nursing order in the United States, under the direction of Elizabeth Bayley Seton. Other branches of this order were to follow, variously
called the “Gray Sisters,” the “Daughters of Charity,” or the “Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul.” Those countries in Europe that remained Roman Catholic escaped some of the disorganization caused by the Reformation. During the 1500s, the Spanish and the Portuguese began traveling to the Americas. In 1521, Cortés conquered the capital of the Aztec civilization in Mexico and renamed it Mexico City. Early colonists to the area included members of Catholic religious orders, who became the doctors, nurses, and teachers of the new land. In 1524, the first hospital on the American continent, the Hospital of Immaculate Conception (Hospital de Nuestra Senora O Limpia Concepçion), was built in Mexico City. Continue reading The Beginning of Change