Citation for this: Efendi, F., Nursalam, N., Kurniati, A.: Nursing qualification and workforce for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community
International nurse migration among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries has the potential to increase the effectiveness of health services and access for the ASEAN Economic Community. Providing equivalent nursing qualifications and licensure standards and increasing the availability of the nursing workforce has become a challenge for ASEAN members. The purpose of this study is: 1) to comparatively analyze information on nursing licensing examinations (NLE) across ASEAN countries; and 2) to present information on the human resources required for a successful nursing workforce. This study reviews all documents published on the subject within the ASEAN Economic Community. NLE systems exist in all ASEAN Member States (AMSs)s except Brunei, Vietnam, and Lao PDR. Nursing education systems also vary across ASEAN countries. Language as a means of general communication and nursing examinations also differs. The availability of a qualified health workforce at the regional level is above the threshold in some areas. However, at the national level, Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Lao PDR fall below the threshold. Professional licensure requirements differ among ASEAN nurses as a part of the process to become a qualified nurse in host and source countries.Mutual Recognition Agreements on nursing services should address the differences in NLE requirements as well as the availability of nurses.
KEYWORDS: ASEAN Economic Community, nursing qualification, nursing workforce
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Innovating to increase health workers in Indonesia
citation for this: Rosskam, E., & Kurniati, A. (2014). Innovating to increase health workers in Indonesia. Perspectives in Public Health, 134(5), 240–241. https://doi.org/10.1177/1757913914545947
Despite significant recent advancements in tackling the problem of HRH shortages in Indonesia, the country
still suffers from a critical level shortage, and much remains to be done to achieve equity of access to health
workers and basic health services. While the density of doctors, nurses, and midwives increased by 2011 from 0.95
to 1.19 per 1,000 population and then to 2.25 per 1,000 population by 2013,2 approximately 29% of hospitals still lack
pediatricians, 27% lack obstetric gynecologists, 32% lack surgeons, and 33% lack internists.22 Re-distribution of
health workers from oversupplied to undersupplied areas remain the biggest challenge.
Indonesia continues to face a HRH crisis, but the collaborative process provides an opportunity to achieve
results. Through the multi-stakeholder coordination approach, more systematic and comprehensive HRH development
exists in Indonesia. Advocacy helps decision-makers prioritize in health policy-making and increase
investments. Indonesia’s experience indicates that irrespective of geographical or economic status, countries
can benefit from multistakeholder coordination and engagement to increase access to health workers,
strengthen health systems, as well as achieve and sustain UHC.
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Citation for this: Efendi, F., Ken Mackey, T., Huang, M-C., Chen, C-M. (2016). IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.
Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country’s adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country’s own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending
nurses abroad under the Indonesia–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.
Keywords: Global health policy, healthcare delivery ethics, healthcare worker migration, Indonesian nurse, trade and
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