Category Archives: English

The Effect of Nursing Care Approach Model (NCAM = PAKAR) on the Increase of CD4 Cell Count for Patient with HIV Infection

The increase of the number of patient With HIV (PWH) Infection has become a great challenge to Indonesian nurses, confronting their values, practices and prejudices and many ethical dilemmas concerning autonomy, control and confidentiality. HIV diagnosis is perceived as a death sentence and the first reaction often include denial and shock. The purpose of the study was to examine NCAM, that focused on on coping strategy and social support (nurse, family, and peer groups). This may result in positive cognitive response and to increase Biological responses. Psychoneuroimmunology paradigm was used in this study. Quasy-experimental pre-post test non randomized control group design was used in this study. Forty (40) PWH infections in Intermediate Department Care for Infection Disease (UPIPI) Dr. Soetomo hospital in Surabaya were selected and non-randomized assignment divided into 2 groups. Instruments, in vitro- test were used to measure biological response change: CD4 and IFN-γ and questionnaires, in depth interview and Focus Group Discussion were used to measure the cognitive responses; spiritual, social, and selfacceptance. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the data of biological response, while non-parametric test: Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney were used to measure cognitive response. The finding indicated that NCAM model is able to treat positive cognitive response that leads to induce immune response modulation that showed by the increase of CD4 cell count.

keywords : Nursing Care Approach Model (PAKAR), cognitive adaptive responses, and biological responses

writer : Nursalam, School of Nursing, Airlangga University School of Medicine, Surabaya


Mud disaster of Lapindo is a stressor to society becoming its victim. Loss everything which initially owned to generate psychological response which all kinds. Psychological response include denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Psychological response of  mud victim society of Lapindo influenced by internal factors and eksternal factors. The objective of this research is to analyse factors related to psychological response of mud victim society of Lapindo Sidoarjo.

It’s an analytic descriptive research. The population was citizen of Renokenongo village RT 01 / 01. Sample size was 66 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The selection of the sample was conducted using probability sampling that is simple random sampling. Data were collected using Kubler Ross’s psychological response questionnare and open question. Data were analyze by analysis content and using  Spearman’S Rho statistical test with signifikan level at < 0,05.

The result of research show psychological response most of mud victim society of Lapindo  is acceptance 63%, denial 6%, bargaining  25%, anger 3% and depression 3%. Most of responder’s age are 20-30 year ( 38%), 36% responder’s education are junior high school and 53% responder do not work after evacuate. The result of statistical test show there is no significant relation between age and psychological response with p = – 0,279, there is no significant relation netween education level with psychological response with p = 0,277 and there is significant relation between job and psychological response with p = 0,001.

            Significant relation between age and education level with psychological response will seen if the age and education level of responder are heterogeneous. So, it’s need to do research again to get an acurat result.


Keyword : Psychological response, mud disaster, Lapindo

*By : Suratmi (Alumni of Nursing School Airlangga University-Indonesia)


Dengue Haemorrhargic Fever is one of contagious diseases caused by Dengue virus. One of the failure to control Dengue Haemorrhargic Fever in the world are lack of knowledge, attitude and practice of society so that from year to year often emerge as outbreak. This Research aimed to know the different of behaviour society and environment condition at Dengue Haemorrhargic Fever occurrence.

Design used in this research was cross sectional study that was conducted in Kejawanputih and Keputih village. The population was housewife who life in that village. Randomized design was used to take the sample. Total sample was 100 respondents, taken according to inclusion criteria. The independent variables were knowledge, attitude and practice about Dengue Haemorhargic Fever. Dependent variables were outbreak and non outbreak area. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and observation. Data then analyzed using Chi-square with level of significance of 0,05.

            Result showed that there is a different of knowledge in outbreak and non outbreak area. Attitude, practice and environment condition didn’t show any significance different between outbreak and non outbreak area.

            The result of this study has enlightened the importance of behavioural and environment factors in Dengue Haemorrhargic Fever occurrence. Maintain a good environment and behaviour needs to eliminate this disease.