Category Archives: English

Florence Nightingale

Nightingale did not develop a theory of nursing as theory is defined today, but rather she provided the nursing profession with the philosophical basis from which other theories have emerged and developed.
Nightingale’s ideas about nursing have guided both theoretical thought and actual nursing practice throughout the history of modern nursing. Nightingale considered nursing similar to a religious calling to be answered only by women with an all-consuming and passionate response. She considered nursing to be both an art and a science and believed that nurses should be formally educated. Her writings did not focus on the nature of the person but did stress the importance of caring for the ill person rather than caring for the illness. In Nightingale’s view, the person was a passive recipient of care, and nursing’s primary focus was on the manipulation of the person’s environment to maintain or achieve a state of health. Despite the fact that she did not believe in the germ theory, her experiences in the Crimean War magnified her interest in the principles of sanitation and the relationship between environment and health. A person’s health was the direct result of environmental influences, specifically cleanliness, light, pure air, pure water, and efficient drainage. Through manipulating the environment, nursing “aims to discover the laws of nature that Continue reading Florence Nightingale


In addition to using theories specifically constructed to describe, explain, and predict the phenomena of concern to nursing, the nursing profession has long used theories from other disciplines. A discipline is a field of study. Theories from biological, physical, and behavioral sciences are commonly used in the practice of nursing. For example, nonnursing theories such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs, Erikson’s Theory of Human Development, and Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome have been and continue to be useful in nursing practice. These nonnursing theories are often incorporated into nursing practice together with specific nursing theories. When used in conjunction with a nursing theory, a nonnursing theory is transformed by the unique approach of the nursing perspective. This perspective provides the specific framework or viewpoint within which to use theories and knowledge from other disciplines. Continue reading IMPORTANCE OF NURSING THEORIES


By changing nothing, we hang on to what we understand, even if it is the bars of our own jail. ( John LeCarre, 1990)
Trends in nursing education and research cannot be isolated from the dynamics of nursing practice. Likewise, nursing trends are responsive to the projected changes in the delivery, organization, and financing of health care. The health care revolution occurring in the United States is spurred by the questionable effectiveness of the current system to provide access to basic health services in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Because of the lack of a unified federal and state health care policy that directs, monitors, and ensures the basic value of health, discussion about appropriate practice roles and an adequate supply of professionals is central in the health care industry. To address these concerns, immediate shifts in traditional activities may offer solutions by developing guidelines for the optimal size of the health care work force, thus providing the nature and structure of care that guarantees access to health care for all U.S. citizens. This chapter discusses the interrelatedness of nursing education, research, and practice. The various educational programs of the United States and Canada are presented in terms of their characteristics and the graduate’s nursing role in health care delivery. Research studies are described within the context of methodology and relationship to practice. This chapter also discusses trends that question nursing’s contribution to health care delivery from an educational or research perspective. Nursing as a scientific discipline and as a profession is an essential component of any delivery system that influences improved health outcomes. According to the American Nurses Association (ANA, 1995a): Continue reading NURSING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH