Medical Surgical Nursing Bullet V (Belajar KMB itu mudah)

? A patient who has had a cataract removed can begin most normal activities in 3 or 4 days; however, the patient shouldn’t bend and lift until a physician approves these activities.
? Symptoms of corneal transplant rejection include eye irritation and decreasing visual field.
? Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) is manifested by weight loss, nervousness, dyspnea, palpitations, heat intolerance, increased thirst, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), and goiter.
? The four types of lipoprotein are chylomicrons (the lowest-density lipoproteins), very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins. Health care professionals use cholesterol level fractionation to assess a patient’s risk of coronary artery disease.
? If a patient who is taking amphotericin B (Fungizone) bladder irrigations for a fungal infection has systemic candidiasis and must receive I.V. fluconazole (Diflucan), the irrigations can be discontinued because fluconazole treats the bladder infection as well.
? Patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can have high peak inspiratory pressures. Therefore, the nurse should monitor these patients closely for signs of spontaneous pneumothorax, such as acute deterioration in oxygenation, absence of breath sounds on the affected side, and crepitus beginning on the affected side.
? Adverse reactions to cyclosporine (Sandimmune) include renal and hepatic toxicity, central nervous system changes (confusion and delirium), GI bleeding, and hypertension.
? Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder in which the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation.
? The hallmark of ulcerative colitis is recurrent bloody diarrhea, which commonly contains pus and mucus and alternates with asymptomatic remissions.
? Safer sexual practices include massaging, hugging, body rubbing, friendly kissing (dry), masturbating, hand-to-genital touching, wearing a condom, and limiting the number of sexual partners.
? Immunosuppressed patients who contract cytomegalovirus (CMV) are at risk for CMV pneumonia and septicemia, which can be fatal.
? Urinary tract infections can cause urinary urgency and frequency, dysuria, abdominal cramps or bladder spasms, and urethral itching.
? Mammography is a radiographic technique that’s used to detect breast cysts or tumors, especially those that aren’t palpable on physical examination.
? To promote early detection of testicular cancer, the nurse should palpate the testes during routine physical examinations and encourage the patient to perform monthly self-examinations during a warm shower.
? Patients who have thalassemia minor require no treatment. Those with thalassemia major require frequent transfusions of red blood cells.
? A high level of hepatitis B serum marker that persists for 3 months or more after the onset of acute hepatitis B infection suggests chronic hepatitis or carrier status.
? Neurogenic bladder dysfunction is caused by disruption of nerve transmission to the bladder. It may be caused by certain spinal cord injuries, diabetes, or multiple sclerosis.

? Oxygen and carbon dioxide move between the lungs and the bloodstream by diffusion.
? To grade the severity of dyspnea, the following system is used: grade 1, shortness of breath on mild exertion, such as walking up steps; grade 2, shortness of breath when walking a short distance at a normal pace on level ground; grade 3, shortness of breath with mild daily activity, such as shaving; grade 4, shortness of breath when supine (orthopnea).
? A patient with Crohn’s disease should consume a diet low in residue, fiber, and fat, and high in calories, proteins, and carbohydrates. The patient also should take vitamin supplements, especially vitamin K.
? In the three-bottle urine collection method, the patient cleans the meatus and urinates 10 to 15 ml in the first bottle and 15 to 30 ml (midstream) in the second bottle. Then the physician performs prostatic massage, and the patient voids into the third bottle.
? Findings in the three-bottle urine collection method are interpreted as follows: pus in the urine (pyuria) in the first bottle indicates anterior urethritis; bacteria in the urine in the second bottle indicate bladder infection; bacteria in the third bottle indicate prostatitis.
? Signs and symptoms of aortic stenosis include a loud, rough systolic murmur over the aortic area; exertional dyspnea; fatigue; angina pectoris; arrhythmias; low blood pressure; and emboli.
? Elective surgery is primarily a matter of choice. It isn’t essential to the patient’s survival, but it may improve the patient’s health, comfort, or self-esteem.
? Required surgery is recommended by the physician. It may be delayed, but is inevitable.
? Urgent surgery must be performed within 24 to 48 hours.
? Emergency surgery must be performed immediately.

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