Medical Surgical Nursing Bullet VI (Belajar KMB itu mudah)

? About 85% of arterial emboli originate in the heart chambers.
? Pulmonary embolism usually results from thrombi dislodged from the leg veins.
? The conscious interpretation of pain occurs in the cerebral cortex.
? To avoid interfering with new cell growth, the dressing on a donor skin graft site shouldn’t be disturbed.
? A sequela is any abnormal condition that follows and is the result of a disease, a treatment, or an injury.
? During sickle cell crisis, patient care includes bed rest, oxygen therapy, analgesics as prescribed, I.V. fluid monitoring, and thorough documentation of fluid intake and output.
? A patient who has an ileal conduit should maintain a daily fluid intake of 2,000 ml.
? In a closed chest drainage system, continuous bubbling in the water seal chamber or bottle indicates a leak.
? Palpitation is a sensation of heart pounding or racing associated with normal emotional responses and certain heart disorders.
? Fat embolism is likely to occur within the first 24 hours after a long-bone fracture.
? Footdrop can occur in a patient with a pelvic fracture as a result of peroneal nerve compression against the head of the fibula.
? To promote venous return after an amputation, the nurse should wrap an elastic bandage around the distal end of the stump.
? Water that accumulates in the tubing of a ventilator should be removed.
? The most common route for the administration of epinephrine to a patient who is having a severe allergic reaction is the subcutaneous route.
? The nurse should use Fowler’s position for a patient who has abdominal pain caused by appendicitis.
? The nurse shouldn’t give analgesics to a patient who has abdominal pain caused by appendicitis because these drugs may mask the pain that accompanies a ruptured appendix.
? The nurse shouldn’t give analgesics to a patient who has abdominal pain caused by appendicitis because these drugs may mask the pain that accompanies a ruptured appendix.
? As a last-ditch effort, a barbiturate coma may be induced to reverse unrelenting increased intracranial pressure (ICP), which is defined as acute ICP of greater than 40 mm Hg, persistent elevation of ICP above 20 mm Hg, or rapidly deteriorating neurologic status.
? The primary signs and symptoms of epiglottiditis are stridor and progressive difficulty in swallowing.
? Salivation is the first step in the digestion of starch.
? A patient who has a demand pacemaker should measure the pulse rate before rising in the morning, notify the physician if the pulse rate drops by 5 beats/minute, obtain a medical identification card and bracelet, and resume normal activities, including sexual activity.
? Transverse, or loop, colostomy is a temporary procedure that’s performed to divert the fecal stream in a patient who has acute intestinal obstruction.
? Normal values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate are 0 to 15 mm/hour for men younger than age 50 and 0 to 20 mm/hour for women younger than age 50.
? A CK-MB level that’s more than 5% of total CK or more than 10 U/L suggests a myocardial infarction.
? Propranolol (Inderal) blocks sympathetic nerve stimuli that increase cardiac work during exercise or stress, which reduces heart rate, blood pressure, and myocardial oxygen consumption.
? After a myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram changes (ST-segment elevation, T-wave inversion, and Q-wave enlargement) usually appear in the first 24 hours, but may not appear until the 5th or 6th day.
? Cardiogenic shock is manifested by systolic blood pressure of less than 80 mm Hg, gray skin, diaphoresis, cyanosis, weak pulse rate, tachycardia or bradycardia, and oliguria (less than 30 ml of urine per hour).
? A patient who is receiving a low-sodium diet shouldn’t eat cottage cheese, fish, canned beans, chuck steak, chocolate pudding, Italian salad dressing, dill pickles, and beef broth.
? High-potassium foods include dried prunes, watermelon (15.3 mEq/ portion), dried lima beans (14.5 mEq/portion), soybeans, bananas, and oranges.
? Kussmaul’s respirations are faster and deeper than normal respirations and occur without pauses, as in diabetic ketoacidosis.
? Cheyne-Stokes respirations are characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. They occur in patients with central nervous system disorders.
? Hyperventilation can result from an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or both.
? Apnea is the absence of spontaneous respirations.

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