The Production, Distribution, and Performance of Physicians, Nurses, and Midwives in Indonesia: An Update

In 2011, Japan celebrated the 50th anniversary of achieving universal health coverage (UHC). To mark the
occasion, the government of Japan and the World Bank conceived the idea of undertaking a multicountry
study to respond to this growing demand by sharing rich and varied country experiences from countries at
different stages of adopting and implementing strategies for UHC, including Japan itself.
This led to the formation of a joint Japan–World Bank research team under the Japan–World Bank Partnership
Program for Universal Health Coverage. The program was set up as a two-year multicountry study to help fill
the gap in knowledge about the policy decisions and implementation processes that countries undertake when
they adopt the UHC goals. The program was funded through the generous support of the government of
This country report on Indonesia is one of the 11 country studies on UHC that was commissioned under the
program. The other participating countries are Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Japan, Peru,
Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. A synthesis of these country reports is in the publication “Universal Health
Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies,” available at
These reports are intended to provide an overview of the country experiences and some key lessons that may
be shared with other countries aspiring to adopt, achieve, and sustain UHC. The goals of UHC are to ensure
that all people can access quality health services; to safeguard all people from public health risks; and to
protect all people from impoverishment due to illness, whether from out-of-pocket payments or loss of income
when a household member falls sick. Although the path to UHC is specific to each country, it is hoped that
countries can benefit from the experiences of others in learning about different approaches and avoiding
potential risks.

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