Return migration of Indonesian nurses from Japan: Where should they go?

Efendi, F., Purwaningsih, M., Qur’aniati, N., Kurniati, A., Singka, E. J., & Chen, C. M. (2013). Return migration of Indonesian nurses from Japan: Where should they go?. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice3(8), 154.

Introduction: Indonesia has a vast resource of nursing workforce for supplying the world demand. Nationally, there is
growing concern at the current flows of nurse migration, particularly from Indonesia to Japan. Indonesia Japan Economic
Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) has opened the gate for movement of natural persons, not exempted of nurses. Through
this program, the flow of skilled migrants from Indonesia to Japan has been facilitated by the government of both countries.
Furthermore, advanced healthcare facility and aging society in Japan has demanded more foreign nurses which are lead to
nursing migration. This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities specifically talking about the issue of return.
Method: Mixed method was employed, in the first quantitative section, data was collected by questionnaire. In the
qualitative section, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative thematic
content analysis. Data were obtained from twenty nurses, self-reporting questionnaire and five nurses participated
voluntarily in the interview section.
Result: The results showed that 18 out of 20 skilled migrants were unemployed and sought a new job. Meanwhile, two
returnees continue studying to a higher degree. Evidence from the interviews revealed that it seems it is very challenging for
them to live in a home country and struggle with a real life. They were seeking vacancies and looking for the best one
which is matched with their qualification.
Conclusion: Return migration would be very challenging and create difficulty for returning nurses to look for a new
position and enhance their career. Facilitating return migration through the specific program should be built. Making return
attractive can increase the transfer of knowledge within a country and lessen the negative impact of brain drain.

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